?

Log in

No account? Create an account

Previous Entry | Next Entry

Pesticide carcinogens and humans

Pesticide Carcinogens in Mothers' Milk and Total
Diet; An Issue of Motherhood; A Toxicology
Review. Aug. 1997. File: mmkpescarcs.htm
Jorma Jyrkkanen Home. Truncated copy.

Abstract

In a literature review I assessed the
carcinogenicity of pesticide and chemical residues found
in mothers' milk by various researchers, and
determined their probable contamination route, source
and carcinogenic effects. It was concluded that
carcinogens were present and these were probably
causing cancers in humans. The main source of
exposure in women was diet but occupational exposure
may play a role for many. The primary candidate
cancers for pesticidal origin are melanoma,
lymphatic cancers, blood cancers and multiple myeloma.
Other cancers also have a highly suggestive
correlation with pesticide carcinogenesis, including
breast cancer. Articles were discussed which
suggest that synergism and immune system compromise
may increase mortality. The concept of safe level
was found to be based on erroneous arguments,
which do not represent the real world. Inerts and
their contaminants have a potential to explain a
large component of carcinogenicity but have not been
researched because they have been in use
covertly. Epidemiology is largely after the fact of
exposure and can lead to the conclusion that a product
is unsafe after it has been used for a long time,
thereby endangering many populations. It was
found that most carcinogens in Mother's Milk were
also endocrine and reproductive disruptors with
hormonal impacts and involvement in development and
carcinogenesis. Banning carcinogens at the source
and using alternatives to pesticides are
discussed as options to use of carcinogenic pesticides.

Key Words: breast cancer, carcinogens, childhood
cancers, contaminants, covert, endocrine,
epidemiology, exposure, disruptors, hormonal, inerts,
leukaemia, lymphoma, melanoma, Mother's milk,
multiple myeloma, pesticides, reproductive, residues,
synergism, toxicology



The Breast Feeding Infants Diet
Table 1.

Carcinogenicity of Residues Found in Human Milk
EXPOSURE SPECIES CARCINOGENICITY
PESTICIDE ROUTE TESTED FINDING


DDT(r)(Linked to breast cancer); oral-mouse(mus)-conclusive
(concl) carcinogen (carc),
subcutaneous(scu)-mus-concl, animal (anim)-suspected(susp)- International
Agency for Research on Cancer(IARC)
PCB's(r); conclusive human and mouse liver
carcinogen
DDE(r); oral-mus-concl, etc.etc.
hexachlorobenzene (HCB)(r); oral-hamster
(ham)-concl
hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH)(r); (includes
Lindane)-oral-mus-concl, anim-positive (pos)-IARC(Linked to breast cancer)
dieldrin(r); oral-rat-suggest (sugg),
oral-mus-concl, anim-pos-IARC
heptachlor epoxide(r); oral-mus-concl-potent
experimental carc
aldrin; mus-National Cancer
Institute(NCI)-bioassay-pos,
oral-rat-suggestive (sugg)
heptachlor(r); oral-mus-concl
DDD (TDE); oral-rat-sugg, oral-mus-sugg,
questionable (quest), anim-pos-IARC, NCI bioassay;
results indefinite (indef)
mirex(r); oral-mus-concl, anim-pos-IARC
oxychlordane(r); oral-mus-concl
trans-nonachlor(r); no references in Sax (1981)
pentachlorobenzene; "benzene is a high volume
chemical and presents a serious and imminent threat to
public health"Sax.
PCT; oral-mus-concl
PBB; oral-rat-quest, indef-IARC
TCDD(r); Discussed below
hexachlorophene; negative (neg)
perchloroethylene; oral-mus-concl, NCI
bioassay-mus-pos
halothane; note-1,2-dibromoethane used as a
fumigant for apples-oral-rat-concl,oral-mus-concl,
IARC-pos, also related 1,2-dichloroethane-mus-concl,
rat-concl,
bioassay-pos
carbon disulphide; note that bisdiethylthiocarbamoyl,
disulfide is oral-mus-concl, scu-mus-sugg,
NCI bioassay-neg
nicotine; oral-rat-sugg, intraperitonially
(ipr)-mus-sugg, scu-ham-sugg, ipr-mus-concl, human
suspected (susp)

(r)Reproductive and endocrine disrupters as of
1995. Clearly this is a diet that has the potential
to alter masculinity and feminity and
reproduction potential.

Pellizzari et al.(1982) found several hundred
volatile chemicals in Mother's' milk from four
different areas of the USA indicating a much broader
contamination than expected. His list included the
following chemicals.

Volatile Organics in Mothers' Breast Milk

I mention that numerous purgeable organic
compounds have been found in Mother's' milk.

The carcinogenicity and endocrine disruptivity
of these is of great interest due to the
widespread nature of the contamination, and the potential
ramifications of this to nursing infants later in
life, as well as to the contaminated parents.

Exposure to multi-chemical carcinogens through
nursing can be expected to induce mutations which
may contribute to increased cancer incidence at a
later date.

Toxic chemicals can of course have other effects
including neurological, reproductive,
immunological, behavioural, developmental and cognitive. The
list is long but I will grind through it for the
sake of science to show that multi-chemical
exposure is highly multi, when taken together with the
multitude of pesticides, thousands of inerts and contaminant residues I
also mention and don’t mention in this review article.
26 HALOGENATED cpds; chlorodifluoromethane,
chlorotrifluoromethane, dichlorodifluoromethane,
chloromethane, chloroethane, trichlorofluoromethane,
dichloroethylene, Freon 113, methylene chloride,
chloroform, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, carbon
tetrachloride, tetrachloroethylene, chloropentane,
dibromochloromethane, tetrachloroethylene,
dichloropropene, chlorobenzene, chlorohexane, iodopentane,
3-methyl-1,1-iodobutane, chloroethylbenzene,
dibromodichloromethane, dichlorobenzene, chlorodecane,
trichlorobenzene.
This class of compounds tends to be carcinogenic
and many induce cancers of the stomach, blood
vessels, skin, breast, lung, uterus, liver and
biliary tract in experimental animals. Some have
proven to be human carcinogens of the lung, skin,
liver and blood forming tissues. (N. I. Sax, 1983}.
17 ALDEHYDES; acetaldehyde, methyl propanal,
n-butanal, methylbutanal, **Crotonaldehyde
{Insecticide and CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENT (CAS:
4170-30-3)}, n-pentanal, n-hexanal, Furaldehyde
{Insecticide, fungicide, germicide, irritates mucous
membranes and acts on CNS, lacrimation and acts on eyes},
n-heptanal, benzaldehyde, n-octanal, phenyl
acetaldehyde, n-nonanal, methyl furaldehyde,
n-decanal, n-undecanal, n-dodecanal.
20 KETONES; acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl
propyl ketone, methyl vinyl ketone, ethyl vinyl
ketone, 2-pentanone, methyl pentanone, methyl
hydroxyfuranone, 2-methyl-3-hexanone, 4-heptanone,
3-heptanone, 2-heptanone, methyl heptanone
{narcotic in high doses}, furyl methyl ketone, octanone,
acetophenone, 2-nonanone, 2-decanone, alkylated
lactone, phthalide.
26 other OXYGENATED cpds; C4H6O, C4H8O, C5H10O,
C6H8O, C6H10O, C4H6O2, C6H12O, C7H12O, C7H10O,
C7H14O, C6H6O2, C8H14O2, C8H16O, C7H8O2, C7H10O2,
C9H18O, C8H6O2, C10H12O2, C10H14O, C10H16O,
C10H18O, C10H20O, C10H.22O, C9H8O2, C11H20O, C10H10O2;
{Note: C4H6O can be either vinyl ether, an
explosive anesthetic, or methyl vinyl ketone, an
alkylating agent, plastic, steroid and vitamin A
precursor, with high absorbtion, irritancy to mucous
membranes and respiratory system (Asthma link?),
and high general systemic toxicity in mammals, or
Crotonaldehyde which is already confirmed is a chemical
warfare agent}.
10 ALCOHOLS; methanol, isopropanol,
2-methyl-2-propanol, n-propanol, 1-butanol, 1-pentanol,
alpha-furfuryl alcohol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol phenol,
2-ethyl-1-hexanol phenol,
2,2,4-trimethylpenta-1,3-diol, alpha terpineol.
2 ACIDS; acetic acid, decanoic acid. 4 SULFUR
cpds; sulfur dioxide {Linked to increased heart
disease, many cancers but especially lung cancer,
respiratory diseases including asthma, infant
mortality} carbon disulfide, dimethyl disulfide,
carbonyl sulfide.
7 NITROGEN cpds; nitromethane {solvent, rocket
fuel, coating industry}, C5H6N2 {this is either
alpha or beta aminopyridine [Dye or anithistaminic]
or Glutaronitrile [trimethylene cyanide]},
C5H8N2, C4H4N2O, methyl acetamide, benzonitrile, methyl
cinnoline.
6 ESTERS; vinyl propionate, ethyl acetate,
ethyl-n-caproate, isoamyl formate, methyl decanoate,
ethyl decanoate.
2 ETHERS; dimethyl ether {refridgerant},
dihydropyran.
1 EPOXIDES; 1,8-cineole.
14 FURANS; furan {vapors anesthetic, absorbed
through skin}, methyl furan, tetrahydrofuran,
methyltetrahydrofuran, ethylfuran, dimethylfuran,
2-vinylfuran, furaldehyde, 2-n-butylfuran,
2-pentylfuran, methylfuraldehyde, furyl methyl ketone,
alpha-furfuryl alcohol, benzofuran.
13 ALKANES; C3H8, C4H10, C5H12 {pentane or
neopentane}, C6H14, C7H16, C8H18, C9H20, C10H.22,
C11H24, C12H26, C13H28, C14H30, C15H32. 12 ALKENES;
C3H6 {cyclopropane [explosive anesthetic],
propylene [plastic, simple asphyxiant [asthma?] and
anesthetic at high concs]} , C4H8, C5H10, C6H12,
C7H14, C8H16, C9H18, C10H20, C11H.22, C12H24, C13H26,
isoprene {skin and mucous irritant, and in high
concentrations, narcotic}.
7 ALKYNES; C5H8 {isoprene again??}, C6H10
{Norcarane}, C7H12, C8H14, C9H16, C10H18, C12H.22,
11 CYCLIC cpds; cyclopentane, methyl
cyclopentane, cyclohexane, ethyl methyl cyclohexane, C10H14
isomers, C10H16 isomers, limonene, methyl
decalin, alpha pinene, camphene, Camphor {plasticiser,
pyrotechnics, moth repellents, preservative in
pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, topical
anti-infective, topical antipruritic, internally as stimulant
and carminative, counter-irritant and antiseptic:
causes nausea, vomiting, vertigo, mental
confusion, delerium, clonic convulsions, coma,
respiratory failure, death}; benzene {leukemia}, toluene
{cancer promoter}, ethyl benzene, xylene, phenyl
acetylene, styrene, benzaldehyde, C3 alkylbenzene
isomers, C4 alkylbenzene isomers, C5 alkylbenzene
isomers, C6 alkylbenzene isomers, methyl styrene
{styrene is a carcinogen}, dimethyl styrene,
napthalene.

Clearly, Pellizzarri et al. has much to tell us
about how we are getting our pollutants into
human tissues and into our children, pollutants which
will do virtually nothing to improve health and
almost everything to degrade it.

He cites (IARC) 1979 and mentions that some of
the most often detected contaminants seem to be
carcinogenic or cocarcinogenic in laboratory
animals. This concurs with these findings on the above
chemicals. It cries out for action. Lance A.
Wallace et al. (1989) followed this work up and the
interested reader might find their work helpful.

Infants and Fetus at Higher Risk

Table II.

Carcinogenicity of Pesticide Residues in the
Canadian Diet
EXPOSURE SPECIES CARCINOGENICITY
PESTICIDE ROUTE TESTED
FINDING
=(avg Intake in ppb/day)

INSECTICIDES
BHC(r)=.01; oral-mus-concl, anim-pos-IARC
(benzene
hexachloride). Contaminant of corn, oats, rice.
Chlordane(r)(Linked to breast cancer)=<.001; oral-mus-concl.,
hepatocellular
carcinomas (technical grade has 3 isomers incl.
heptachlor).
Garden fruits.
DDT(r)=.023;
oral-rat-sugg/or-mus-concl/scu-mus-concl/anim-susp-IARC, NCI-bioass-neg. Wide
range of foods.
Diazinon=.001; NCI-neg: final. Cereals.
Dieldrin(r)=.002;
oral-rat-sugg/or-mus-concl/anima-
pos/NCI bioassay-neg:final. Wide range of foods.
Endosulfan(r)(Linked to breast cancer)=.007;
oral-mus-sugg/NCI-neg:final
Fruits, veggies.
Endrin=.001; EPA Farm Worker Field
Re-entry/NCI-neg
Ethion=<.001; no data; Fruits.
Heptachlor(r) epoxide=<.001;
oral-mus-concl/potent
experimental carc in animals; Dairy products.
Malathion(r)=.012; oral-rat-quest/ NCI-neg/neg;
Cereal contam.
Methidathion=.012; No data; Regist. for
potatos only
Canada, contaminant on citrus fruits and apples
imported from S. Africa, Chili, NZ, Australia,
USA.
Parathion=.003; oral-rat-quest/farm
worker field
re-entry NCI-Indefinite; Leafy vegetables
and fruits.
Parathion methyl; farm worker field
re-entry/NCI-neg
Phosalone=.007; (Zolone) No data;
Winnipeg, Vancouver,
Fruits.
Toxaphene(r)=.012; oral-rat-quest,
oral-mus-concl/oral-mus-concl/oral-mus-concl/NCI-bioassay-pos-mus;
Halifax-leafy vegetables and legumes.

FUNGICIDES
MITICIDE Captan=.004;
oral-mus-sugg/scu-mus-sugg/NCI-mus pos
(Orthocide); Fruits.
Chlorothalonil=<.001; oral-rat-sugg/NCI-
rat pos
(Daconil-2787, Bravo, Termil, Bravo-w-75); Garden
fruits-Montreal.
Dichloran=.01; (Dichloramine??)-intravenous
(intrav)-rat-conc/skin-mus-quest/IARC-indef. (Batran); Not
registered for
fruits in Canada, USA. Minor foods pest use
contaminant.
Folpet; scu-mus-sugg (phaltan)
HCB(r)=<.001;
oral-mus-sugg/oral-ham-sugg/oral-ham-sugg; Dairy, meats, potatos, oils and fats.
Quintozene=<.001; oral-mus-concl/skin-mus-
sugg/IARC-anim-pos/NCI bioassay-neg; Leafy veggies.
Sulfur=<.001; (Orthoflotox, Magnetic 6) No data

Chlorobenzilate=.006;
oral-rat-quest/oral-mus-concl/oral-mus-concl
IARC-anim-pos/NCI- mus-pos; Fruit.
Dicofol(r)=.002;
oral-mus-concl/oral-mus-concl/NCI-mus-pos; Leafy veggies, fruits.

HERBICIDES
Chlorpropham=.016; oral-mus-sugg/IARC indef;
Potatos.

OTHER
PCB's(r)=.001; CONCLUSIVE HUMAN CARCINOGEN;
meats, fish?

Note: {1 ug/kg = 1 ppb}.(r) Reproductive and
endocrine disrupters as of 1995. Note how many
carcinogens are also endocrine disrupters suggesting a
mechanism for carcinogenesis. Endocrine receptors
probably deliver the toxins to the genes.

The American Diet
alpha,beta, gamma, delta BHC(r);
captan, carbaryl, chlordane(r)(Linked to breast cancer), octachlor epoxide,
chlorobenzilate, 2-chloroethyl caprate, 2-chlorethyl
laurate, 2-chloroethyllinoleate, 2-chloroethyl
myristate, 2-chloroethyl palmitate,chlorpropham,
chlorpyrifos, DCPA, DDT(r), DDE, TDE, DEF,
Demeton-s-sulfone, diazinon, dichloran, dicofol(r),
dieldrin(r), dimethoate, endosulfan I(r), endosulfan
II(r), endosulfan sulfate, endrin, ethion,
2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate, fenitrothion, fenthion,
fonofos, heptachlor(r) epoxide,
hexachlorobenzene,(r) leptophos, linuron, malathion(r),
methidathion, methoxychlor(r), nitrofen(r), trans
-nonachlor(r), parathion, parathion methyl,,
pentachloroanisole, pentachlorobenzene,
pentachlorobenzonitrile, pentachlorophenol(r), perthane,
o-phenylphenol, phosalone, polychlorinated biphenyls,
quintozene, pentachloroaniline, pentachlorothioanisole,
ronnel, tecnazene, tetrachloroaniline,
tetrachloroanisidine, tetrachloroanisole,
tetrachlorobenzene, tetrachlorothioanisole, toxaphene(r),
tri-n-butyl phosphate, vinclozolin(r), arsenic,
cadmium(r), lead(r), mercury(r), zinc.

[Note:(r)Endocrine and reproductive disrupters, 1995;
vinclozolin is an anti-androgen linked experimentally with
hermaphrodism]


Covert Use; Ramifications

Toxic chemicals labeled as `non-active' (inerts)
in a lengthy { >=75 pages) federal pesticide
ingredients list, pose a hazard to unsuspecting users
and the environment.

The list includes chemicals with long and exotic
names like, 2,4,6-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid
(2,4,6-T), 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D),
Benzene Formaldehyde, Chlorofluorocarbon 11 &
12, Chromium oxide, Dioxane(r), Nickel acetate ,
Polyoxyethylene amine (POEA), Polyvinyl
chloride(r), Toluene. Also present in the Canadian Inert
List are chemicals found in the USA EPA 1989 list
of Inerts of toxicological Significance that they
were aware of: 2-ethylhexyl phthalate(r), acrylic
copolymer possibly, asbestos fiber, benzene,
dichlorebenzene, dimethyl formamide, hexane,
isophorone, lead compounds, malachite green, methyl
chloride, methyl ethyl ketone, nonylphenol(r),
perchloroethylene, ethyelene glycol monethyl ether,
rhodamine B compounds, trichloroethylene.

These health effects may include: gender bending
and reduced fertility effects, neurotoxicity,
fetotoxicity, mutagenesis, carcinogenicity,
teratogenicity, tumor promotion, immunotoxicity, or
synergicity between these classes.

A detailed look at what peer reviewed published
studies have found about just a few of these
non-actives regarding cancer causing potential
follows;

(2,4,6-T), (closely related to
2,4,5-Trichorophenoxyacetic acid used in production of Agent
Orange). 2,4-6 T carcinogenicity was conclusive in rats
and mice in 4 studies, positive in NCI bioassay
and questionable in only 1 study.
(2,4-D), a known carcinogen, linked to NH
Lymphoma, soft tissue sarcoma, also used in agent
orange; 2,4-D has been found to have the following
contaminants contained within; octachlorobisfirone,
xanthen-9-ones, mono, di, tri, and tetradioxins
and probably furans, n-nitrosomethylamines and
n-nitrosodiethylamines, ortho and para
monochlorophenol isomers, (2,6-Di, 2,4,6 tri-) chloromethoxy
phenol isomers, n-nitrosodiethanolamine, 3
chlorophenoxymethanes. These contaminants are thus part
of the Non-Active package delivered and most are
toxic.

Benzene-a well studied cause of human leukemia.
Formaldehyde-human cancer initiator and probable
promoter. (CFC's ) 11 & 12, now banned for use because of
their harmful effects on ozone but included in the
list.

Chromium oxide-closely related chromium dioxide
was found to be a conclusive carcinogen in rats in
two studies and suspected in another.

Dioxane-six conclusive carcinogenicity studies in
rats and mice, 2 positive findings and one
suggestive; discovered by J. Jyrkkänen and Dr. D.
Monroe in 1989 in Vision herbicide.
Nickel acetate-three conclusive cancer studies in
rats and mice.

(POEA)-a suspected human carcinogen. POE sorbitan
monooleate and sorbitan monolaureate have been
linked to human cancers of lung, skin, alimentary
tract and bladder.

(PVC's)-human carcinogen which oxidizes in low
heat to dioxins.

Toluene-cancer promoter.
One can see readily from perusal of the
toxicology sample above that these substances are far
from non-active, and may in fact be highly
dangerous.

Inert ingredients are defined as: Non-Active
against the Targeted Pest, in Canada and the United
States. They are also called formulants and are part
of the other ingredients including contaminants.

Because of the potentially serious
harmful effects of these toxic chemicals, the consumer
has to wonder what the Canadian government has
been up to in the Health Protection Branch to allow
these dangerous chemicals to go unreported in
commercial and domestic products.


Contaminants Add to Residue Burden

A good example is 2,4-D which has been found to
have the following contaminants contained within;
octachlorobisfirone, xanthen-9-ones, mono, di,
tri, and tetradioxins and probably furans,
n-nitrosomethylamines and n-nitrosodiethylamines, ortho
and para monochlorophenol isomers ,(2,6-Di, 2,4,6
tri-) chloromethoxy phenol isomers,
n-nitrosodiethanolamine, 3 chlorophenoxymethanes.
Pesticide contaminants are thus part of the
Non-Active (active in reality in the human body)
package delivered to the environment and most are
toxic.

Conclusion

This review has demonstrated the existence of
chemical carcinogens in Mother's milk and that the
problem is widespread and that we are waging
chemical warfare against our own children.


* Epidemiology has been largely ineffective at
providing answers fast enough to keep pace with the
growing use and distribution of pesticides as
evidenced by the contamination with numerous
carcinogens and it exposed people to danger before
finding out if it is safe, and in many cases, unsafe.

* Evidence was brought forward that other
potentially carcinogenic substances might be present
that have not been disclosed or assayed for ie.
amongst the inerts, and contaminants.

* Unknown isomers and formulants may also be
present. There is the long list of anthropogenic
chemicals which N. Irving Sax (1981) and others like
The Merck Index, an Encyclopedia of Chemicals,
Drugs and Biologicals, list as potential human
exposure hazards.

* It appears that the concept of safe levels is
meaningless in the multichemical milieu that we
find ourselves due to interactions.

* There was evidence to suggest that the infant
and fetus are at greatest risk from exposure.

* Most of the contamination is through food,
though not all.

* Chlorinated organic pesticides have been found
in all diet samples and all food classes within
samples.

* What appears to be a distinct possibility from
the above world-wide data, is that there is
world-wide a large number of cancers induced by
these chemicals because of their known experimental
carcinogenicity and because of the enormous
numbers of infants being exposed in milk, and the many
years that they continue to be exposed through
the dietary intake throughout life. Supporting this
proposition are Erving J. Selikoff, MD. and E.
Cuyler Hammond, SC.D. (1979) who estimated that
from 75-85 % of cancers have an environmental
origin. These percentages are however hotly debated by
scientists working on risk models. However, most
of these ignore synergy, potentiation,
immunosuppression, individual susceptibility and the total
load.

* Regarding breast cancer; accepted risk factors
ie; unsaturated fat intake, socio-economic
status, obesity, etc., are implicated in less than half
of all cases.... halogenated hydrocarbons [to
which group many pesticides belong]--acting as
either co-carcinogens or promoting agents.... may play
a role in breast cancer risk; elevated levels of
polychlorinated biphenyls, bis
(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1 dichloroethene, and bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1
trichloroethane were found in fat samples from
women with cancer, suggesting a role for
environmentally derived suspect carcinogens in the genesis
of mammary carcinoma (Falck F. Jr et. Al. 1992).
Also, MS Wolff et. al. 1997, found studies
linking OC's and DDT to breast cancer in four
different countries.

* Ramamoorthy K. et. al. (1997) found that
10(-4)M endosulfan caused a 2000 fold increase in
activity in the Beta Galactosidase reporter gene in
yeast which had estrogen receptor inserts,
suggesting that it is a steroid analogue. Estrogen
substitution therapy hs been linked to increased risk
of breast cancer. Endosulfan is part of the
Canadian and American diet, and is used on fruits and
vegetables. However, 10(-4)M is a very high
concentration.

* This review has focused primarily on
carcinogenicity.

* My review of epidemiology studies and cancer
trends has concluded that modern childhood cancers
are linked to pesticides and also the following
cancers in all age groups: melanoma, cancers of
the lymphatics, lymphomas, and lymphosarcomas, and
blood, leukaemia, are clearly most consistent and
multiple myeloma.

* Five percent of papers given this summer at a
Reproductive Symposium in Portland Oregon were
dedicated to chemical and pesticide toxicology
suggesting real concern by high level scientists for
the effects of these substances.

* This review has shown that the suspicion that
cancer causing pesticides found in the breast and
in its milk and probably also in utero, mostly
derived from food contaminated with residues,

probably causes significant increases in childhood
cancers, and later in adults as well due to time
lags before onset and continued ingestion of
residues from food. Other avenues of contamination are
probably minor except for those occupationally
exposed. Melanoma, blood cancers, sarcomas, and
lymphomas and multiple myeloma are clear contenders
for breast milk linked cancers.

* It saddens me to reach the conclusion, based on
this review of scientific evidence, that many
people have already died and many more are doomed
world-wide from these preventable cancers.

* The strong pesticide association of melanoma
and the widespread nature of its occurrence amongst
north temperate caucasians suggests an
interaction of solar radiation and chemical pollution as
causal, and it would be interesting to find out
what proportion is due to which venue in a
restrosective synergism study.

* The problem is of course an International one
because of
the export and import of food items, and varying
regulations and pesticide usage patterns between
countries (Table III) .

Table. III

Average (avg) Total Pesticide Residues in
Mother's Milk From Around the World & Canada; (DATA in
ppb's)
PESTICIDE COUNTRY/AVG RESIDUE


( avg(range)) (avg/(range) ( Yr))

ALDRIN; FRG=50 PPB.
1+/(1978/79)

DDT; Guatemala= 3100(410-12,200).
154+/(1967/68)

DIELDRIN; Lisbon Portugal= 18-31.
5+/(<1-60)(1967/68)

HCB; Melbourne=2-330.
2/1(<1-21)(1975)

HCH; Punjab=14-820.
1(1975)

BETA-HCH; Griefswald DDR=0-900.
<21(1975)

GAMMA-HCH; Spain=73.
<(1-35)(1967/8)

HEPTACHLOR AND HEPT. EPOXIDE; Spain=39.

OXYCHLORDANE AND CHLORD; USA<=20.
1

PCB; USA=50-4091.
MEDIAN=4(1979)

TRANS-NONACHLOR; USA=<10.
1(1975)


What Should We Do?

* This review supports the proposition that there
is enough evidence to conclude that action to
prevent chemical carcinogenesis is warranted and
prudent and could save many lives from disease,
keeping in mind the social costs of potentially
reduced quantity of foods.

* In North Termperate regions quanity of food is
not a problem so much as distribution and access
to food varying according to income level and
education. In the tropics, and in poor countries in
general, exposure through dermal and inhalation
routes due to ignorance and poverty are probably
higher.

* It concurs with and supports fully the alarm
sounded by WHO in 1987.

* If it is chosen to eliminate these carcinogens
from mother's milk, this will require a
coordinated effort on the part of citizens and governments
amongst all trading partners.

* Organic gardening, biological pest control
offer solutions. Soils may actually increase in
quality through application of these procedures. IPM
however still uses suspected pesticides and
undisclosed inerts.

* Regulatory measures offer a means to reduce
exposure. Italy has already registered lower levels,
in Mother's' milk, of conclusive animal
carcinogens HCB, alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, lindane, DDE and DDT
due to tougher Italian and European restrictions
of 1982 (Dommarco, et al. 1987). So has Norway
(Brundtland, Gro, 1989). However, governments
cannot as we have seen all be trusted.

* Banning them at the source, along with toxic
inerts would be the only way to get rid of all
residues completely, but this would have to be by
international agreement. Governments will have to
come under scrutiny by independent auditors to
ensure they do not use toxic inerts.

There are those who will oppose tougher
legislation. They may argue that the exponential growth
of resistance to pesticides by pest species
(Georgia, G. 1981) argues for an increase in the number
of pesticides to deal with them, if that route of
control is not effectively replaced by
alternative methods.

* They may argue that agricultural production
requires pesticides.

* One cannot but wonder at what kind of milk
future generations of infants will be consuming if the
demonstrated trend continues.

* I believe strongly that strides to improve the
quality of our chemical environment will be made
by those that become aware of what is in our
environment, in Mother's' milk, because protection of
our children and the future of life itself is,
after all, a motherhood issue.

* What I have identified above hints strongly

that chemical exposure is the probable main cause of
breast cancer in most women. It seems highly
unlikely that such a collection of carcinogens
passing into and through the breast, cannot at some
point turn on that breast tissue itself and cause
cancerous transformation. One needs only a brief
look at how fats are turned into milk to realize
how intimately these lipophilic pesticides are
associated with crucial cellular metabolic pathways.

* In Israel, studies suggest that the dramatic
drop in breast cancer mortality rates is associated
with a ban on alpha-BHC and lindane (Westin J. B.
1993)(Linked to breast cancer). DDT was also present but had already been
banned, implying a causal connection at most or a
correlation at least for any or all of these
pesticides for breast cancer. They are a
different set of pesticides than those identified as
linked to breast cancer by Falck F. Jr. et. al. 1992,
who report an association of polychlorinated
biphenyls, bis (4-chlorophenyl)-1,1 dichloroethene,
and bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1 trichloroethane in
cancerous breast tissue. Clearly these seven
pesticides/contaminants need immediate attention.

* We must keep in mind that other effects may be
present as well; teratogenicity, fetotoxicity,
gender bending, fertility effects, neurotoxicity,
and immunotoxicity and a chemical role in cancer
promotion. There may also be behavioural effects.

* Some epilepsy may turn out to be linked to DDT
and or fenitrothion and viral infections since we
saw the mice die in siezures and children
similarly exposed had similar gross pathological
symptoms.

* Of these other effects, the greatest risk to
life and natural selection processes are those
affecting reproduction and the immune system. The
immune system is of course under assault from loss
of ozone as well, and so should have a great
amount of funding for research. Chemically
diminishing the effectiveness of the immune system will
make organisms more vulnerable to all manner of
diseases including cancer.

* Other species are often at greater risk than we
humans because they are more often exposed to the
direct toxicity as well as these side effects of
our pesticide use and many species are assaulted
from combined habitat loss, alienation, physical
and chemical alteration of their environment.

Footnote

When discussing this issue, I am often
confronted by anxious women who worry about continuing
breast feeding.

Everything in this article and my analysis cries
out; "Stop Breast Feeding!" However, we are in a
Catch .22. We are damned if we do and more damned
if we don't, but for the infant, the chance to
get a normal immune system depends upon being
exposed to human milk.


This leaves us no choice except to conclude that
for practical purposes, benefits of limited
breast feeding might outweigh the harmful potential.
A poisoned immune system is better than no immune
system at all. The duration or length of time
spent breast feeding is the issue which does need
detailed examination until such time as we clean
up the pollution of Mother's milk.

The infant needs human milk to prime the immune
system and to transfer antibodies when its own
are as yet undeveloped. Mother's milk has human
specific fats and proteins vital to the infants
development. The child needs its Mother's touch to
ensure normal physiological and psychological
development and the mother needs it too to bond
properly.

If one is still concerned about a potential
risk, then get tested although this is a worrisome
and expensive procedure, which would probably only
return what we already know.

Reducing life-time burden or exposure by eating
organic foods and washing foods thoroughly and by
peeling fruits, can help. Most importantly, lobby
for change in pesticide and inert management to
eliminate those that are capable of affecting the
health of humans and the environment.

Demand labels with full disclosure of active,
inert and contaminant ingredients on all products
used. Boycott serious polluters.

Do not stop early breast feeding unless you
have reason to believe that you are seriously
polluted. If seriously concerned still, reduce the time
spent breast feeding or find an unpolluted Wet
Nurse.

My personal bias is to go the above route while
eliminating carcinogens and those chemicals
affecting the endocrine systems and reproduction and
the immune system at their point of origin.

Health and Welfare Canada should also answer an
important question. Do Material Safety Data
Sheets (MSDS) have allowance for the toxicities of
the inert ingredients and contaminants and where
are these toxicity databases kept? I want a copy.
Also, whose idea was it to create the secret inert
database?

Literature Cited

Adamovic, V. M., J.A. Burke, B. Sokic, O
Petrovic. 1979. Daily Pesticides Intake through Food in the
population of Serbia. Pesticides: Third International
Conference. Helsinki, 3-9 July.

Alavanja MC, Rush GA, Stewart P, Blair A J 1987.
Proportionate mortality study of workers in the
grain industry. Natl Cancer Inst. 78(2):247-252.
Feb.

Barthel E A 1986. Retrospective cohort study of
the cancer incidence in pesticide-exposed male
pest control workers [1214 who worked 5 yrs or
more]. Z Erkr A-ungsorgane;166(1):62-68.

Becker, Charles E. and Molly Joel Coye. 1984.
Recent advances in occupational cancer. Clinical Toxicology.
.22(3):195-208.

Betta A, Maranelli G, Dal Ri C 1989. Pesticide
immunotoxicity Med Lav. 80(5):381-389 Sep.
[Article in Italian]

Brundtland, Gro. 1989. Personal communication.
[Responding to my global concerns about
carcinogenic pesticides in Mother's Milk via Minister of
Health].

Burmeister LF (1990) Cancer in Iowa farmers:
recent results. Am J Ind Med 18(3):295-301

Burnham, Rebecca, (1990). Crying Wolf once too
often. BC Report, p: 24. Nov.

Cartwright, J. 1984. Cancer Epidemiology. In
Chemical Carcinogens. Vol. 1. Charles E. Searle,
Editor. ACS Monograph 182.

Crocker, J.F.S., K.R. Rozee, R.L. Ozere, S.C.
Digout, O. Hutzinge. 1974. Insecticide and viral
interaction as a cause of fatty visceral changes and
encephalopathy in the mouse. The Lancet, p:.22.
July 6.

Crocker J. F.S. et al. 1976.Pesticides/Virus/DDT/
Fenitrothion On Humans. Science (192):1351-1353.

Cuzick, J. Unpublished Data, cited in
Cartwright, 1984.

Davis, L. 1986. One Man's Poison: Genetic
Vulnerability. Science News (129)

Dommarco, Roberto, Alphonso De Muccio, Ivano
Camoni, and Beniamino Gigli. 1987. Organochlorine Pesticide
And Polychlorinated Biphenyl Residues in Human Milk
from Rome (Italy) and Surroundings. Bull. Environ.
Contam. Toxicol. (39):919-925.

Falck F Jr, Ricci A Jr, Wolff MS, Godbold J,
Deckers P .1992. Pesticides and polychlorinated
biphenyl residues in human breast lipids and their
relation to breast cancer. Depar-ent of
Ophthalmology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Arch
Environ Health47(2):143-146. Mar.

Fleming L, Mann JB, Bean J, Briggle T,
Sanchez-Ramos JR 1994 . Parkinson's disease and brain
levels of organochlorine pesticides. Department of
Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Miami
School of Medicine, FL 33136. Ann
Neurol;36(1):100-103. July . [Epidemiological studies have
suggested an etiologic relationship between pesticide
exposure and Parkinson's disease (PD).
Organochlorine pesticides were assayed in postmortem brain
samples from 20 PD, 7 Alzheimer's disease (AD),
and 14 nonneurological control cases. The three
groups were similar in age at death, sex, and
demographic variables. Only two of 16 pesticide
residues screened were detected. A long-lasting residue
of DDT(pp-DDE) was found in the majority of cases
of PD and AD, as well as in all the control
cases; pp-DDT was significantly more likely to be
found in AD controls than the PD cases (Fisher's
exact two-tailed, p = 0.04). Dieldrin was detected in
6 of 20 PD brains, 1 of 7 AD, and in none of
14control samples. Despite the relatively small
number of brains assayed, the association between
Dieldrin and the diagnosis of PD was highly
significant (p = 0.03). Dieldrin, a lipid-soluble,
long-lasting mitochondrial poison, should be
investigated as a potential etiological agent of
Parkinsonism].

Friend, M. and D. O. Trainer (1970). Science
(170):1314.

Gartell, Marcia J., John C. Craun, David S.
Podrebarac, Ellis L. Gunderson. 1985. Pesticides, Selected
Elements, and Other Chemicals in Total Adult Diet Samples,
October 1979-September 1980. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem.
68(6):1184-1197.

Georgia, George P. and Roni B. Mellon. 1981.
Pesticide resistence in time and space.
Pesticide Resistance to Pesticides. Plenum Press: New York. p:1-48.

Grem, H., U. Andrea, S. Hesse, L.R. Schwarz.
1981. How relevant are high doses in mutagenicity and
carcinogenicity studies in animals? Progress In Mutation
Research, Vol.2, p:129-147.

Hardell, Lennart, 1977. Malignant mesenchymal
tumors and Exposure to Phenoxy Acids: A Clinical
Observation. Lakarttidningen. (74):2753-2754.

Iyanimura, T.T. 1990. Mammalian toxicity and
combined exposure to pesticides. Laboratory for
General Toxicology, Institute of Public Health and
Environmental Hygiene, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
Vet Hum Toxicol; 32(1):58-62. Feb.

IARC. 1979. Chemicals and industrial processes
associated with cancer in humans. IARC Monographs, Suppl.
1. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer.

Jensen, Allan Astrup, 1983. Chemical
contamination in human milk. Residue Reviews (89):1-128.

Jyrkkänen J. A. & D. Monroe. 1989. New concerns
about potential contamination of forestry
herbicide Vision by the probable human and confirmed
animal carcinogen and liver and kidney toxin,
1,4-dioxane. Unpublished paper.

Jyrkkänen, J. A. & J. Cole, 1997. Active Agents
Classified as Non-Active by the Canadian
Government-ExtensiveToxicological Ramifications. 7 August
Press Release to the Globe and Mail. p:1-3. See
also J. Jyrkkänen & J. Cole, (June 10) A Nation
At Risk; Bravo Veterans Outlook. Active Agents
Classified as Non-Active by the Canadian
Government-ExtensiveToxicological Ramifications (June/July
1997) (p: 14, 60).

Knoll and Jayarman [Cited in Jensen]

Kraybill, H. F. 1969. Significance of Pesticide
Residues in Food in Relation to Total Stress. Can. Med.
Assn. Journal. Vol. 100:204-215. Jan 25.

Kroger 1974 [Cited in Jensen]

McConnachie, P.R. and A. C. Zahalsky (1991).
Immunological Consequences of Exposure to
Pentacholorphenol. Archives of Environmental Health.
46(4):249-253. July/August.

McLeod, Harry A., Dorothy C. Smith, and Nathan
Bluman, 1980. Pesticide residues in the total diet in Canada,
v: 1976 to 1978. Journal of Food Safety (2):141-164.

Munoz, N. 1976. In "I Tumor Infantale";
Bucabssi, P. et. al.; Eds.; Casa Editrice Ambrosiana: Milan,
p:5-15.

Nath, Uma Ram. 1987. WHO sounds alarm over
chemicals in breast milk. New Scientist. p:30. June
25.

Pim, Linda R. 1981. The Invisible Additives.
Pollution Probe. p:1-269.

Pellizzerri, E. D., T. D. Hartwell, B. S. H.
Harris, R. D. Waddell, D. A. Whitaker, and M. D. Erickson.
1982. Purgeable organic compounds in mother's milk.
Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (28):3.22

Purdey M. (1996), The UK epidemic of BSE: slow
virus or chronic pesticide-initiated modification
of the prion protein? Part 2: An epidemiological
perspective. High Barn Farm, Somerset, UK. Med
Hypotheses. 46(5):445-454. May. [An alternative
hypothesis is proposed that cites exposure of the
bovine embryo to various specific high-dose
lipophilic formulations of organophosphates, such as the
high-dose phthalimide containing organophosphate
phosmet, (which were applied compulsorily and
exclusively in the UK during the 1980s/early 1990s)
as the primary trigger that initiated the
deformation of prion protein and the onset of the bovine
spongioform encephalopathy epidemic.]

Quinby, E., J. F. Armstrong, W. F. Durham. 1965.
DDT in Human Milk. Nature (207):726.

Raloff, J. 1986. Dioxin: Is everyone contaminated? Science
News. 128(2):26-29.

Ramamoorthy K, Wang F, Chen IC, Norris JD,
McDonnell DP, Leonard LS, Gaido KW, Bocchinfuso WP,
Korach KS, Safe S .1997. Estrogenic activity of a
dieldrin/toxaphene mixture in the mouse uterus,
MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, and yeast-based
estrogen receptor assays: no apparent synergism.
Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, Texas A&M
University, College Station 77843-4466, USA.
Endocrinology 138(4):1520-1527 Apr. [10(-4) M
endosulfan caused a 2000-fold increase in beta-gal
reporter gene activity.]

Rawis, Rebecca L. 1983. Dioxin's Human Toxicity
is Most Difficult Problem. C&EN. Washington, June 6.

Rice, Jerry M. 1982. Exposure to chemical
carcinogens during pregnancy: consequences for mother
and fetus. First World Congress on Trophoblastic
Neoplasms, Nairobi, Kenya, Oct. 25-27.

Saks, N. Irving. 1981. CANCER CAUSING CHEMICALS.
Van Nostrand Reinhold. p:1-466.

Science News, 1988. Pesticide Link to Leukemia.

Selikoff, I. J. MD. and E. Cuyler Hammond, SC.D.
1979. Cancer and the Environment. In Understanding
Cancer. Bull Publishers. p:1-135.

Selikoff, I, J. Hammond, E. C. Chung, J. Jama.
1968. J. American Medical Association. (204):106-112.

Selikoff, I., J. Seidman, H. Hammond, E. C. 1980.
JNCI, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (65):507-513.

Selikoff, I. J. MD. and E. Cuyler Hammond, SC.D.
1979. Cancer and the Environment. In Understanding
Cancer. Bull Publishers. p:135.

Smith, P.G. 1978. In "Lymphoma". UICC Workshop,
Geneva.

Statistics Canada, 1983.-mortality in Canada-.
The Queen's Printer.

Sternon J., Gilles C. 1996. Poly-medication and
drug interaction in geriatrics. [Article in
French] Service de Medecine Interne, Hopital Erasme,
Bruxelles. Rev Med Brux Dec;17(6):389-396 [the
authors focus on 9 families of drugs potentially
dangerous to the health and 5 interactions with
deadly consequences ]

Swerdlaw. A. J. 1979. British Medical Journal.
(2):1324-1327.

Torchio P, Lepore AR, Corrao G, Comba P, Settimi
L, Belli S, Magnani C Sci Total Environ 1994.
Mortality study on a cohort of Italian licensed
pesticide users., di Orio F Center of Epidemiology,
University of L'Aquila, Italy. 149(3):183-191 Jun. 20

Wallace Lance A. et al. (1989). The Influence of
Personal Activities on Exposure to Volatile
Organic Compounds. Environmental Research (50):37-55.

Wang XQ, Gao PY, Lin YZ, Chen CM. 1988. Studies
on hexachlorocyclohexane and DDT contents in
human cerumen and their relationships to cancer
mortality Institute of Nutrition and Food Hygiene,
Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine, Beijing.
Biomed Environ Sci 1(2):138-151. Aug.

Wesseling C, Ahlbom A, Antich D, Rodriguez AC,
Castro R 1996 Cancer in banana plantation workers
in Costa Rica. Pesticide Program, Universidad
Nacional, Heredia, Costa Rica. Int J Epidemiol;
25(6):1125-1131. Dec.

Westin JB. 1993. Carcinogens in Israeli milk: a
study in regulatory failure. Int J Health Serv;
23(3):497-517.

Wiklund K, Dich J, Holm LE, Eklund G 1989. Risk
of cancer in pesticide
applicators in Swedish agriculture. Department of
Cancer Epidemiology, Karolinska University
Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. Br J Ind Med.
46(11):809-814. Nov.

Wolff MS, Weston A.1997. Breast cancer risk and
environmental exposures. Division of Environmental
and Occupational Medicine, Mount Sinai School of
Medicine, New York, New York 10029-8574,
USA.Environ Health Perspect;105 Suppl 4:891-896 June.

(c) 1998 Jorma Jyrkkanen, All rights Reserved Return of the Fenni; [Original in Jyrkkänen Autobiography]

Since this study was updated, there has been a
major development in reporting of inerts. Many
companies are divulging the so called inert contents
probably to head off litigation down the road.
However, importantly, many are not. Contaminants remain
mostly undisclosed.


What it all means: Press Summary

1. We are being exposed globally to a
carcinogenic endocrine disrupting
chemical/pesticide soup which is not disclosed to
us and it is ending up in mothers milk and our
infants. It is composed of pesticides, other chemicals,
inerts which often are not inert, and contaminants all of which
which may have a variety of toxic effects, or not.

2. I have found an association between
carcinogenicity and endocrine dispruption. If a
pesticide or chemical is one, it is likely the
other, suggesting the mechanism for
carcinogenesis. Carcinogenicity may come about by
the same types of mechanisms as synthetic
estrogens is the suggestion.

3. This exposure has occurred for the most part without our
knowledge or permission but with the knowledge
and permission of the chemical companies and our
Governments top regulatory scientists who dismiss
it as too low to have an effect but who also go
along with covering up the more insidious
effects. I call it chemical rape.

4. They ignore multiple
chemical/pesticide-pathogen interaction multiplying
toxicity of pathogens and the fact that some of
these chemicals can harm the immune system and
the role this may have in cancer promotion
leading to frank carcinogenesis as well as the
different susceptibility of different people
depending on the state of their immune system,
as with AIDS patients. They ignore their own
experience that mixing multiple chemicals, i.e. our soup,
makes them more toxic, a process called potentiation.

5. They also ignore that cancer can be caused by
multiple mutations of a succession of genes as
has been demonstrated for colon cancer and that
all a pesticide or chemical needs to be is a
mutagen to lead inevitably to cancer with
successive incremental mutagenic exposures.

6. I demonstrate that there is no safe threshold
for carcinogens, only imposed assumed risks, and other
end points like effects on secondary sexual
expression are not even part of the Federal
regulatory considerations. There is a distinct
and high probability, based on my findings, that
gender alteration is occurring by this
pesticide/disruptor exposure and that the
variations in peoples genders in our contemporary
society are pathological chemical inductions.

7. Work with the master hormone
prostaglandin-f2-alpha shows that parts per
trillion of some hormones can have profound
influences on things like pregnancy, suggesting
that the potential exists for endocrine
disrupting chemicals to exert influences at
levels far below present consideration or even
comprehension and consistent with the exposure
levels I have found.

8. There is the profound question of the chemical
warfare agent found by Pellizzerri,
Crotonaldehyde and need for its explanation in
American samples of mothers milk.

9. My review raises huge questions about the
safety of breast feeding and the trade-offs
around priming the immune system versus harming
it, and the need for nurturing and bonding versus
the safety of the child. For example, should all
mothers get tested and limit breast feeding
depending on the results? It also raises huge
questions around pest management and the
trade-offs in saving lives by reducing
insect/plant pathogens and by increased food
production versus lives lost to chemical induced
mortalities and the difficulty of knowing where
to draw the line.

10. Our trust in the regulatory agencies and
their processes based on my findings is shattered
and we should demand an immediate explanation of
how this global contamination by carcinogenic
pesticides and chemicals was allowed to happen.

11. Finding a clean control group to estimate the
impacts is virtually impossible because of the
pervasiveness of the problem globally (Amazon?). The soup
acts differently in different people because each
one of us has a different sensitivity and a
different exposure history, so it is hard to
prove a particular carcinogensis by classical
scientific methods so that the regulatory
agencies and companies who approve and those who
manufacture these toxins have the almost perfect
crime, that is until I exposed their dirty secrets.

12. We have been poisoning our environment and it
has come home to roost, endangering our own and
our childrens lives and generations as yet unborn. It
proves that we are an intimate part of the ecosystem
of this fragile planet, and that we have to respect and
care for it like we do our own children.

13. These findings speak to us that the other species high
in the food chain are in great peril, but then we already
know that. From my study, we have another possible
explanation of why so many may be disappearing
from this Planet.

14. A great many mystery illnesses may have their explanation
in these findings.

Jorma Jyrkkanen
Researcher
jorma60@gmail.com


Copyright 2001 Jorma Jyrkkanen. All Rights Reserved.

Comments

( 4 comments — Leave a comment )
drsbanerji
Sep. 15th, 2008 04:29 am (UTC)
Pesticide Safety
Toxicity is dose related. Pesticides are regulated for this purpose. The NOEL, ADI, and MRL systems provide safe and judicious ways to use pesticides. It is abusive and against the public interest to conduct tests of pesticide effects above any NOEL level.
jorma_jyrkkanen
Sep. 15th, 2008 11:28 pm (UTC)
Re: Pesticide Safety
Carcinogenicity is not dose related but history related and it is also a highly personal history which varies from person to person and also depends on immune compromises that may ahve occured concurently.
drsbanerji
Sep. 15th, 2008 11:38 pm (UTC)
Re: Pesticide Safety
Individual immunity and genetics are not related to Personal antigen production cannot be a determinant for toxicity. The NOEL should be respected as the boundary between safe use of a pesticide and its abuse.
jorma_jyrkkanen
Sep. 17th, 2008 08:58 am (UTC)
Re: Pesticide Safety
Sir Winston Churchill said: "You can fool some of the people all of the time and all of the people some of the time, but you cannot fool all of the people all of the time." When the German Army is at your doorstep, to discuss the NOEL is meaningless. You are not seeing the forest for your focus on a tree.
( 4 comments — Leave a comment )

Latest Month

February 2016
S M T W T F S
 123456
78910111213
14151617181920
21222324252627
2829     

Tags

Powered by LiveJournal.com
Designed by Akiko Kurono